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Victorian Archives Centre public opening hours

Monday to Friday: 10:00 am to 4:30 pm
(excl. public holidays)
The second and last Saturday of every month

A new system of government inquiry: what impact on record keeping?

Introduced in September this year, the Inquiries Act 2014 formally establishes three tiers of government inquiry in Victoria. The Act carries new implications for records received and created by inquiries, including a change in the agency responsible for dealing with Cabinet records. Perhaps though, what is most interesting about the regime is that it permits the handing over of Cabinet records (which are ordinarily closed from public access for a minimum 30 year period) to an inquiry; an issue that received much attention at a federal level earlier this year during the Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program.

 WB bridgeThe Inquiries Act 2014 clarifies and enhances the powers of existing Royal Commissions and Boards of Inquiry, while introducing a new tier of inquiry, Formal Reviews.

Production of documents

Royal Commissions and Boards of Inquiry can call upon agencies to produce documents, even if other legislation prohibits the production of a document/s. The only exception is where another Act specially excludes the production of documents to the inquiry, or where this is prescribed by regulations. This means that:

  • Public records which are closed under sections 9, 10 &10AA of the Public Records Act 1973 would still be available for such inquiries;
  • Cabinet documents are also not excluded from call up provisions. The Freedom of Information Act 1982, under which cabinet documents are classed as exempt documents, specifically does not apply to documents in the custody of an agency (or the inquiry body) during the life of an inquiry.

The Act comes in the wake of the decision in early 2014 by Attorney-General George Brandis to release Cabinet documents of the former Rudd Government during the Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program, which generated controversy in some political and legal quarters. The debate centered on whether the release of the documents set a precedent for publication of Cabinet documents before their set release date, and the possible consequences of this for free and open discussion in Cabinet. These questions have yet to be raised in the context of an inquiry body in Victoria.

 Records of inquiries

The Act provides that when a Royal Commission, Board of Inquiry or Formal Review has wound up, all its records are to be transferred to the Department of Premier and Cabinet as the responsible public office. That is unless the Premier, by legislative instrument, determines that they are to be transferred to another public office. Permanent value records must then be transferred to Public Record Office Victoria as soon as practicable.

 Previously, the Department of Justice has been the primary responsible agency, although at times other Departments have been responsible for the records (for example Department of Treasury and Finance).

 The new arrangements under the Act will apply to all future Victorian government inquiries.


Image: Front page of the Royal Commission into the Failure of West Gate Bridge, supplied by Public Record Office Victoria.


Vida! The Australian Suffragist Who Shook Up An Empire

blackand white photo of VidaGoldstein

World Famous Australian Suffragette Vida Goldstein

It’s impossible to discuss the Australian and global suffrage movement without talking about Melbourne woman Vida Goldstein. One of the women who tirelessly traveled across Melbourne and Victoria gathering 30,000 signatures for the 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition.

Aimed at securing Victorian women the right to vote. The petition was the largest known petition of the 19th Century, at 260 metres long,and it was also the catalyst for similar petitions in New Zealand and England.

 Inspired by her mother Isabella, a vocal suffragist and worker for social reform, and the inspiring speaker and well traveled feminist Annette Ellen Bear-Crawford, Vida was well educated and passionate about reformist legislation, often attending parliamentary sessions in Melbourne to learn about political procedures.  She was a very good looking woman and a witty public speaker, she helped to challenge the populist anti-suffrage claim that feminists were he-women who had ‘never been kissed’. An influential speaker, she also won the support of politician’s wives.

By 1899 Goldstein was the undisputed leader of the radical women’s movement in Victoria and was focused on securing Victorian women the right to vote.

‘In essentials unity; in non-essentials liberty; in all things charity’ Vida Goldstein.

She was known  as a witty and impressive speaker because she was able to handle the most abusive hecklers.  Between 1891 and 1919 she helped to educate women about political process through her publication the Woman’s Sphere and her touring lecture series.  She was vocal about women’s equality, including equal property rights, raising the age of marriage and consent to 16, women’s worker rights, pacifism and in her older years improved access to birth control. She was a known lobbyist and directly influenced many Acts of parliament. Her most famous was her cost-living-table which influenced the Harvester Judgment which established the concept of a basic wage.

Vida ‘was the biggest thing that has happened to the woman movement for some time in England’. Melbourne journalist for The Argus Alice Henry

Of all the Australian suffragettes Goldstein was the only one to develop an international reputation. She visited England and the United States and always drew huge crowds. In 1902 she spoke at the Woman Suffrage Conference in the United States and was elected secretary. Women in Australia were given the right to vote in the Federal election in 1902, and Goldstein was one of four women to be nominated for election, and went on to run for the Senate as an independent throughout the First World War. The first of such women in the British Empire. Australia and New Zealand were trail blazers in securing women the right to vote. 

It was the 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition which kick started Vida’s career as an activist, lobbyist and aspiring (inspiring) politician.

The petition is a treasure in the Public Record Office Victoria Collection, and is on display at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka for a time from October 2014 – January 2015.

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Suffragette Brettena Smyth Taught Birth Control in 1880

Black and white photo of sfrragette Btrettena Smyth

Prominent activist Brettena Smyth was a suffragette and championed right

Brettena Smyth was a feminist freethinker, author, lecturer, suffragist and women’s health reform campaigner. She was also a vocal supporter of the 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition, an important public record now on display from October 2014 at the Museum of Democracy at Eureka.

In 1873 Brettena Smyth, a recently-widowed mother of four children, closed the family greengrocery in Errol Street, North Melbourne.  Instead, she opened a drapery and druggist’s shop, which became a landmark in the struggle for women’s rights. The shop was a venue for meetings of the Australian Women’s Suffrage Society in the 1880s–90s and, more controversially, the source of birth control advice and ‘preventives’ for Melbourne women.

At Six Foot Tall Smyth Was Recognisable

Smyth became one of Melbourne’s most prominent activists in the feminist cause; at almost six feet tall, she was also the most recognisable. A  member of the first Australian suffrage organization, Victorian Women’s Suffrage Society, she left that organization in 1888 to found the Australian Women’s Suffrage Society, after some members found her ideas on birth control objectionable. Smyth recognised that access to artificial contraception, which could be ‘used without the knowledge of the husband’, was as liberating as the power of the vote.

Brettena Smyth died in 1898; her organization did not long survive her. Others groups, such as the Victorian Women’s Franchise League (backed by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union) and Vida Goldstein’s United Council for Women’s Suffrage, took the suffrage campaign into the twentieth century. 

The 1891 Women’s  Suffrage Petition is a treasure in the Public Record Office Victoria Collection.

Written by Helen Harris, Public Record Office Victoria.

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Ballarat Suffragette Signed Petition to Stop Alcoholism

Sepia photo of suffragette Mary Morrison

Australian Suffragette Mary Morrison

Mary Morrison was living in Ballarat, Victoria at the time she signed the 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition. It is one of Victoria’s most important public records and on display at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka from October 2014.

She was born in 1863 in Morrisson’s, a small gold-mining settlement near Ballarat. Her father worked at the diggings at Dolly’s Creek in one of the gold-bearing quartz reefs there, and suffered from what was known as “miner’s complaint”, or pulmonary fibrosis, from which he eventually died. 

Mary ‘In Service’ at 12

As he was unable to work for many years, Mary had to leave school at the age of 12 to work “in service” to help her younger siblings. However, she read widely and her considerable drive and energy led her to become a local leader in the temperance movement, an activity that continued after her marriage to Duncan McPhee, which took place in the same year that she signed the Petition – 1891.

 Passionate About Abstinence

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was established in 1889, and Mary became an active member in Ballarat. Members of the Union not only supported total abstinence from alcohol but also feminist objectives.

“From childhood until death she was always busy, and never an idle moment could I detect. She was puritanical in outlook and was active as a church worker from childhood. She had a fairly simple faith, was very kindly, always helping people worse off than herself.” Mary’s son, Stuart McPhee.


Champion for the Monster Petition

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union were one of the chief organising bodies for the massive Women’s Petition, arguing for votes for women on the grounds of social justice. They continued to put pressure on the government for women’s suffrage in Victoria until it finally came to pass in 1908.

After she died in 1932, Mary’s son Stuart, one of her five children, wrote: “From childhood until death she was always busy, and never an idle moment could I detect. She was puritanical in outlook and was active as a church worker from childhood. She had a fairly simple faith, was very kindly, always helping people worse off than herself, had many friends, was intelligent, but without much learning except through reading and self-improvement, was extremely industrious and was very capable, naturally taking the lead when required. She took life very seriously but was a devoted mother.”

Image and text courtesy of Jan Harper,  grand-daughter of Mary Morrison.

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World’s Largest Petition Of 19th Century Back In Ballarat

Photo of the 1891 Women's Suffrage Petition

The 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition

On 1 October, 2014,  the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka (MADE) in Ballarat will publicly display the giant 1891 Women’s Suffrage Petition.

That year, a band of extraordinary women set out to prove to the Victorian Parliament that women should have the right to vote.  Led by early women’s rights activists like Isabella Goldstein and her daughter Vida, they spent six weeks traveling by train and foot collecting signatures from across the state.

They convinced 30,000 Victorian women that voting could improve conditions for them and their children. In particular they hoped to influence liquor laws, enable equal pay for women, a higher age of consent for girls,  introduce playgrounds and schools, and afford themselves greater equality around issues of land ownership and divorce.

‘Because, to sum up all reasons in one – it is just.‘  Vida Goldstein.

Largest Petition of the 19th Century

On its completion it was 260 metres in length and the largest known petition of the 19th Century, inspiring similar efforts across Australia and the world.



To the Honourable the Speaker and the Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Colony of Victoria the humble petition of the undersigned men and women resident in Victoria respectfully sheweth that the exclusion of women from the Franchise is both unjust to them and inimical to the welfare of the state


Australian women were the first in the world to be granted both the right to vote and the right to stand for Parliament. This was greatly influenced by the 1891 Petition, and the determination of women like Vida Goldstein who continued to lobby for a position in parliament throughout this period.

The Legacy of 1891

The 1891 ‘Monster petition’ as it was later known was a landmark for Victoria’s fledgling women’s movement. Tabled to the Victorian Parliament 1891, the petition, while unsuccessful in gaining women the right to vote in Victoria at that time, demonstrated the gathering strength in their determination to gain women’s rights.

Often ‘ordinary’ women’s voices are left out of historical accounts and the petition provides a historical record of women’s commitment to their right to be heard.  
This amazing icon of the women’s rights movement in Australia is now a treasured part of the Public Record Office Victoria Collection. Researchers can search the database to find out whether their female ancestors were one of the great women who signed the petition and made a significant contribution to women’s rights today.

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Records management on trial? Justice Legislation Amendment (Discovery, Disclosure and Other Matters) Act 2014

New case management powers in Victoria for discovery and disclosure provide an even stronger case for government agencies to ensure compliance with the standards issued by Public Record Office Victoria.


“The one great principle of the English law is, to make business for itself. There is no other principle distinctly, certainly, and consistently maintained through all its narrow turnings. Viewed by this light it becomes a coherent scheme, and not the monstrous maze the laity are apt to think it. Let them but once clearly perceive that its grand principle is to make business for itself at their expense, and surely they will cease to grumble.”
―Charles Dickens, Bleak House

 Magnifying lens  on the stack of old filesIn August this year, the Justice Legislation Amendment (Discovery, Disclosure and Other Matters) Act   2014 came into effect. The Victorian legislation is the capstone in a longstanding push by members of the  legal community to reduce costs and delays associated with discovery and disclosure of documents required in court proceedings. It comes in the wake of modern-day Dickensian litigation such as Seven Network Limited v News Limited, where the estimated cost of discovery ($200 million respectively) has been grossly disproportionate to the amount of relief  sought (in that case, a damages estimate of between $195–$212 million).

The amendments introduce a range of additional mechanisms targeted towards better case management. Most relevantly, it arms the courts with more sophisticated legal tools under the Civil Procedure Act 2010 in a bid to:

  • minimise the production of voluminous documents (and in doing so reduce the burden associated with sifting through them for evidence);
  • aid in the discovery of relevant documents.

As a result, the provisions will likely open up records management practices and systems of businesses and government to greater scrutiny during pre-trial processes. 

Scope of discovery

First, courts can order a statement of issues which identifies and summarises the key issues in dispute in a proceeding. If the parties cannot agree on the contents of the statement, it may be determined by the court. Second, a court can limit discovery to a class or classes of documents specified in the order; or to documents relating to one or more specified facts or issues in dispute. Courts are also empowered to order that a party pay the costs of discovery of another party, creating an incentive for parties to avoid extraneous requests for documents.

Discoverability of documents

Under new section 55A where there is the agreement between the parties, courts can order that all relevant documents to a matter in the possession of one or more parties are handed over. Parties can still opt to exclude documents protected by privilege from discovery. A court can only make the order where it is comfortable that:

  • the documents can be identified and located by the person providing the documents without incurring unreasonable costs in the process;
  • the documents are able to be identified by a general description or category; and
  • the party providing the documents will not be substantially prejudiced in giving the other party access to the documents.

What’s apparent is that the key benefits arising from use of these powers are prefaced on evidentiary documents being managed under an effective records or document management system. That is, under a 55A order the providing party will not be required to review each of its documents for relevance prior to production, saving it time and money.  But by the same token, a robust records management system must be in place to enable cost-effective retrieval. This assumption is reinforced by additional powers which enable courts to direct that documents are provided in a searchable electronic format, or any other format that the court requires.

Affidavit of document management

The amendments also introduce section 55B powers by which courts can require parties to a proceeding produce an ‘affidavit of document management.’ This affidavit can include the volume, manner of arrangement or storage, type or location of discoverable documents. It can also pertain to a party’s ‘processes of document management.’ In addition, the court can order that the deponent (person giving evidence in the affidavit) or an appropriate person (for example a records or information manager) be orally examined about the affidavit of documents management. Notably, the court can order that any party has to pay for the costs of an oral examination. Parties therefore have an incentive to prepare full, accurate and reliable affidavits of document management.

Be prepared!

So what to expect? It is hoped is that discovery requests will become more targeted as the scope of discoverable documents will be commensurate with the matters at issue. At the same time, arguments that documents have not been sufficiently described in a request for discovery so as to identify them; or that the documents are ‘hidden’ in an organisation’s document management system, are less likely to hold water. Orders for the release of all relevant documents, coupled with orders to reveal the organisation’s document/records management system create expectations of fewer barriers to accessing and retrieving records.

Against this new set of expectations, government agencies can better weather pre-trial discovery processes through ensuring compliance with the standards and specifications issued by Public Record Office Victoria. In particular:

  • Having a standards-compliant records management framework already in place will reduce cost and effort associated with complying with section 55A or 55B orders.
  • Standards cover the complete spectrum of records management activities and facilitate access to hardcopy and electronic records. Records management policies and strategies developed under the standards can be readily reproduced in an affidavit context, avoiding the need to capture and describe these retrospectively.
  • Finally, an agency can demonstrate compliance with the standards to show that records have been managed and disposed of in a legally responsible way.

Public Record Office Victoria welcomes the introduction of the amendments and emphasises the role that good records management in increasing access to justice in our Courts and reducing costs associated with discovery.

A Peak Inside Sister Saunders’ Scrapbook!

A page from Sister Saunders' scrapbook of a girl holding a puppy

Sister Saunders’ scrapbook
Citation: 16870/P1

A Treasure Trove of memories from the Royal Children’s Hospital

Recently, while digging through the archives I discovered a series of records within our health related records that took my interest.  The series is a real treasure trove and it includes Sister Dorothy Saunders’ scrapbook full of papers, trinkets and memorabilia. It offers us a glimpse into the personal history of Sister Saunders’ long and rewarding career at The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.

Dorothy Saunders trained at the Royal Children’s Hospital between the years 1928-1933 and was Sister In Charge of the operating theatres from the early 1930s until her retirement in 1972.

During her time at the Royal Children’s Hospital Sister Saunders documented her career highlights in this large and lovingly created scrapbook which dates back to the 1960s.







The scrapbook holds a variety of memorabilia all beautifully presented and highlighting special occasions such as:

  • Certificates received for passing various training courses
  • Invitations such as Centenary invitations
  • Newspaper clipping
  • Many greeting cards she received with good wishes
  • Photos and Correspondence
  • Travel highlights

Click here to take a look at our flickr site and see some of the highlights of Sister Saunders’ scrapbook.

Written by Sandra Hopper, Access Services Officer, Public Record Office Victoria.


Archival Records Tell A Story of Mission Life

Black and white photo of unidentified children play with stick at Aboriginal mission in Victoria

Aboriginal children playing with sticks on Victorian mission. Citation VPRS 14562/P4, unit 6014

Victoria’s first Aboriginal missions and reserves were set up in the 1850s and 1860s by missionaries and colonial authorities. These administrators believed segregation could shield Aboriginal people from the negative effects of colonisation.

Rules and regulations

Rapid white settlement of the Port Phillip District from 1834 devastated the Aboriginal population. European farming on traditional lands, as well as violence and introduced disease, severely weakened and scattered tribes.



The Aborigines Protection Act 1869 required Aboriginal people to live on one of six reserves, where rules and regulations shaped their daily life. To earn their ‘upkeep’, men did manual labour, while women and older children performed domestic duties. They were often paid with rations rather than wages.

Regulations governed where Aboriginal people could live. A reserve manager or the Board for the Protection of Aborigines could decide to move a person from one station to another. This was distressing for people who were separated from family or unable to live where they wished.

Daily Life Community and Identity 

Mission life was generally restrictive and often monotonous, although the character of the station manager and his relationships with residents could make a difference. Reverend John Bulmer, manager at Lake Tyers until 1908, encouraged traditional hunting and fishing to supplement rations. Residents also made artefacts to sell to tourists visiting the picturesque Gippsland lakes. 

At first, reserves tried to be self-supporting through agriculture. Hop production flourished at Coranderrk (near Healesville) in the late 19th century. But lack of funds, a shifting workforce that relied on outside wages, and a growing perception of reserves as welfare institutions, eventually caused these initiatives to fail.

 Despite these hardships, the stations were a source of community identity and connection, and a base for organised campaigns to win civil and land rights.

Government Records in Victoria Open for Viewing

 Government officials began to create records about Aboriginal people from the earliest years of European settlement in Victoria. Many of these documents, dating from the 1830s to the 1970s, are now held in the state and commonwealth government archives and available for viewing. They are a rich resource for researchers and genealogists seeking to connect with family and country.

Want to know more?
Visit our latest exhibition, walata tyamateetj: carry knowledge

On display at the Victorian Archives Centre until 31 October 2014

This interesting exhibition offers access to important Aboriginal records rarely put on public display.  Walata tyamateetj,  meaning to ‘carry knowledge’, features a fascinating selection of iconic Victorian records including petitions, hand drawn maps, photographs, letters, official documents and manuscripts drawn from the collection of Public Record Office Victoria.

Koorie Records Unit

The Koorie Records Unit at Public Record Office Victoria offers a dedicated service for Aboriginal people wishing to access records.

A Koorie Reference Officer can help you find and obtain copies of records that relate to you, your family and community.

For more information, click here  or contact the Koorie Records Unit directly on:

phone 9348 5600



History Students Dig the Archives for Soldier Stories

AlexWilliamsonActionThe Battle-To-Farm Project

Public Record Office Victoria is currently digitising around 10,000 Soldier Settlement Records for the centenary commemoration of World War One. The entire collection of individual soldier settlement records helps to explain the highs and lows of the farming experience undertaken by many returned Victorian soldiers; most of the soldiers were offered leased land in recognition of their war service. It will be searchable and available online by 2015.

Public Record Office Victoria are excited to have entered into an internship agreement with Monash University Faculty of Arts to help uncover case studies for the project and provide students with industry experience to aid their career path.



Arts and Economics Student, Alex Williamson

“My name is Alex Williamson, and I’m studying Arts and Economics at Monash. I’m a third year student, and my Arts major is history, with a minor in literature. During my time at PROV I’ll be working on the Battle to Farm project, which concerns soldier settlement after World War One. In particular, I will be researching the economic side of the scheme, both in terms of the macro picture of the state and global economics during this period, and the individual economic struggles faced by the soldier-turned-farmer. So far I’ve gathered a lot of information and statistics, and a few interesting stories about soldier settlers, their families, and the land.


History and Literature Student, Chelsea Delpirou

ChelseaAction_lookingthroughfolders “My name is Chelsea Delpirou, and I am in my 3rd year of my double major in history and literature, at Monash University,  Clayton. Last year in 2013, I worked with the National Archives of Australia to research the Repatriation files from WWI, revealing the stories of damaged and dependent veterans, highlighting the true cost of war for Australians. Sparking my interest, this year with PROV, I was given the opportunity to research a Governmental approach to increasing labor and productivity through giving WWI returned soldiers their own farms to build a living. Unfortunately, the scheme produced mixed results leading to many discharged soldiers walking away from their farms. Working with PROV, I will be specifically focused on changes within society, if women received land, and if Aboriginal and Chinese Soldiers received land. I hope to highlight various case studies to reveal the successes and failures of the Government’s Battle to Farm.”





“many suffered greatly in their noble efforts to persevere and make a go of living on the land” Alex Dubout 


 Commerce and Arts Student, Alex Dubout.

AlexDuboutDesk_cropped“My name is Alex Dubout. I’m a second year student at Monash completing a Commerce/Arts degree, majoring in Finance and History respectively. I got involved with Public Record Office Victoria through the Professional Placements Office of the Arts Faculty. Several of the units I have completed so far have focused on understanding the effects of war on the role and prominence of the nation-state and national identity.As such, this project appealed to me as a means of extending the breadth of my learning on that topic, whilst also getting the opportunity to assist PROV with real-life historical work in a non-classroom environment.

 I have already learned so much more than I previously knew about this ill-fated-and now largely forgotten-chapter in the story of Victoria. One of the most striking things I have noticed about the soldier settlement scheme is the political climate in which it was conceived, and how blithely indifferent many leading figures of the day were towards the enormous difficulties they knew soldiers were going to encounter along the way. PROV’s files on these soldiers have demonstrated over and over again that it was them and their dependents that were left to carry the heaviest burdens that the flawed scheme created, and many suffered greatly in their noble efforts to persevere and make a go of living on the land.”

The project has been funded by the Veterans’ Branch of the Department of Premier and Cabinet as part of the Centenary of Anzac commemorations.


Stay in touch with the Archives  here, and here

Drowned With Gold

Black and white Sketch of Royal_Charter_(ship)_courtesy_statelibraryqueensland

A sketch of the Royal Charter, State Library Queensland

The Royal Charter was one of the fastest ships traveling from Liverpool to Australia during the Victorian gold rush.

In August 1859 the Royal Charter passenger ship left Melbourne for Liverpool, carrying 452 men, women and children, and a cargo of gold valued at £320,000 – the equivalent of more than A$170 million today!

In the early hours of 26 October, the clipper was near Moelfre (off the north-west coast of Wales). Winds began to pick up dangerously: the ship had sailed into the worst storm to hit the Irish Sea that century. Sending up distress signals, but finding no pilot to respond, the captain dropped the anchors and powered the coal engines, but it was too late.

‘Save me!’

The Royal Charter was driven onto rocks only 50 yards (46 metres) from the shore and was battered against them with such force that the ship broke in two. Many people were thrown from the ship; some swam valiantly for shore but were weighed down by the gold in their pockets.


Seaman Edward Wilson, one of the crew to survive, described the terrible confusion on deck: ‘Fathers and mothers clasping their children in their arms, wives clinging to husbands, shrieking and crying, “Save me!”’. Another seaman, Joseph Rogers, was a hero. He tied a rope around his waist and managed to swim to shore. He secured the rope and aided the rescue of the 39 survivors – all men.


view the original passenger list.

The Royal Charter Shipping List is preserved within the Public Record Office Victoria shipping records, here you can see John Bradbury’s name at the top of this record, the only man who survived off this list.  Shipping lists of  those individuals who migrated to or from Victoria  between 1852 and 1923 are now available to search online, and a valuable resource for family historians. #sailingintomelbourne






Sailing Into Melbourne Exhibition

The Sailing Into Melbourne exhibition, on until January 2015 at the Old Treasury Building,  helps to explain Melbourne’s nautical history, including the perilous journey migrants made to join the the gold diggers in rural Victoria.

What’s in the Archives?

Consider searching the inward and outward passenger lists of ships, by surname or ship name to uncover the stories of your ancestors and how they came to move to Victoria.

 Passenger list record citation: PROV, VPRS 948/P1, unit 17; Image: Courtesy of  John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland.

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